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Raising the right size for better efficiency and profit for small farms


 Smaller cows can produce more profitable fed steers

Measured back to the farm level, smaller cows of the right kind show they can produce more profit in fed steers, as well as in sale-barn value.

Alan Newport | Nov 29, 2016


At last someone has studied the relationship of smaller cows to profitability of the smaller steers they produce.

The result was a group of smaller-framed cows from North Dakota State University's Dickinson Research Center out-profited a group of larger-framed cows.  Smaller cows were about $65 per head cheaper to keep and produced steer calves with total carcass value about $250 lower, and had a net return per steer of $74 less.


Uniquely, this appears to be the only study to measure cow costs and performance on a per-acre basis for different-sized cows and then weigh that against collective feedlot profit for the different-sized steers they produced. It's pretty hard to dispute that smaller cows are cheaper to keep, and that they produce more pounds of beef per acre, but until this study no one had measured feedlot profitability and linked it back to the cows and their production costs and returns.


Kris Ringwall, beef specialist for the NDSU Extension Service and director of the Dickinson Center, has been blogging about the outcome of the 20-plus year experiment on NDSU's Beef Talk blog, and with his co-workers has produced quite a bit of data

The gist of the story is this: Smaller cows were about $65 per head cheaper to keep and produced steer calves with total carcass value about $250 lower, and had a net return per steer of $74 less. However, because they and their dams were cheaper to feed and because they produced more tons of quality fed beef, they produced more profit.  "The net result was a 10% increase in revenue for the smaller-framed cows, when compared with the larger-framed cows, based on steer calf performance," Ringwall says.


The smaller-framed cows' total finished steer net return was $4,517 greater from the smaller-framed cow herd, when extrapolated to a herd of 120 cows averaging frame score 3.8 and weighing about 1,050 pounds, versus a herd of 100 cows averaging frame 5.5 and weighing about 1,450 pounds.  Herd figures showed smaller-framed cows earned $49,308 ($821.81 on 60 steers), while larger-framed cows earned $44,791 ($895.82 on 50 steers).


Obviously, these figures came from the time of higher cattle prices, but the relationships should hold, Ringwall adds.

At the bottom of the overall system chart, you'll note the system net return, which includes cow costs and all other direct costs, is lower on a per-head basis for the smaller steers. That should be no surprise.


This reiterates the point that per-acre measurement of ranch profitability versus per-head is the key metric. Remember the smaller fed steers made more as a unit downstream from the ranch primarily because there were more of them.

When we dig into the grazing data more, however, the chart supporting that information suggests the smaller-framed steers were very close in individual animal performance to their larger counterparts. The biggest difference is they started and finished at lighter body weights. They do produce uniformly lower costs per head and per pound of gain, but as we know their total value at the end of grazing is lower, as it was at the end of the feeding period.


Once they go to the feedlot, the higher carcass value of larger-framed steers cannot outrun the lower costs and larger numbers of the smaller steers.  Ringwall says cow size is an important topic but the overriding issue is cow efficiency, because controlling costs is a major beef production issue.


Back in 2008, Ringwall reported that the larger cows at the research center were actually producing smaller calves, compared with smaller cows. This was a shock to many who have bought into the bigger-is-better cow mantra. The latest research compares two herds of cows now kept at the center, one averaging over 1,400 pounds and the other averaging 1,100 pounds.

Ringwall explains the difference in maintenance requirements means they can keep 120 smaller-framed cows on the same resources required by 100 larger-framed cows. Because of later calving and longer grazing season across the board on Dickinson Center cows, regardless of frame score, the data for the traditional management of larger cows comes from a blend of the center's own data and Minnesota-North Dakota farm financial management records. Ringwall adds he is confident of the veracity of the numbers the team has put together.